Justicia betonica L.

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Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
Morumbodzi Falls, lower slopes Mt. Gorongosa.

Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
Morumbodzi Falls, lower slopes Mt. Gorongosa

Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
Morumbodzi Falls, lower slpes Mt. Gorongosa

Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
Morumbodzi Falls, lower slopes Mt. Gorongosa

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Adhatoda betonica (L.) Nees
Adhatoda cheiranthifolia Nees
Adhatoda lupulina Nees
Adhatoda variegata Nees var. pallidior Nees
Justicia betonicoides C.B. Clarke
Justicia cheiranthifolia (Nees) C.B. Clarke
Justicia pallidior (Nees) C.B. Clarke
Justicia pallidior (Nees) C.B. Clarke var. cooperi C.B. Clarke
Justicia uninervis S. Moore
Common names: Paper plume (English)
Frequency: Frequent
Status: Native
Description:
Shrubby perennial herb up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves opposite, more or less narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 2-16 cm long, hairless or finely velvety, base somewhat decurrent along the petiole; margin entire to crenate; petiole 0-2 cm long. Inflorescences in terminal spikes 2-12 cm long.Bracts overlapping, white to pale green with more or less distinct darker green or purplish veins. Flowers 8.5-14 mm long, usually on one side of the spike, white with 2 pinkish ridges or spots in the corolla throat, finely velvety and with scattered stalked glands. Capsule 11-20 mm long more or less densely velvety.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: In a wide variety of grassland, scrub, woodland and evergreen forest habitats. Also in secondary vegetation and sometimes as a weed of cultivated areas.
Altitude range: 10 - 2000 m
Flowering time:Dec - May
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical africa, South Africa, tropical Asia and introduced in America.
Mozambique distribution: MS,M
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Wednesday 19 September 2012
Literature:

Bandeira, S., Bolnick, D. & Barbosa, F. (2007). Wild Flowers of Southern Mozambique Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique Page 195. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C., Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 23.

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 19.

Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2010). Acanthaceae (Part 2) Flora of Tropical East Africa Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Pages 548 - 550. (Includes a picture).

Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Acanthaceae (Part 2) Flora Zambesiaca 8(6) Pages 185 - 187. (Includes a picture).

Ellery, K. & W. (1997). Plants of the Okavango Delta, a Field Guide Tsaro Publishers, Durban, South Africa Page 165. (Includes a picture).

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 396 - 397. (Includes a picture).

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 330. (Includes a picture).

Kirby, G. (2013). Wild Flowers of Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa Page 42. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 14.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 19.

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 200 - 201. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Common Wild Flowers of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part II Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 10 - 11. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (2011). Wild flowers, Waterplants and Grasses of the Okavango Delta and Kalahari "Did You Know" nature series Struik Nature for Veronica Roodt Publications Page 25. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 18.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 194.

Van Wyk, B. & Malan, S. (1988). Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria Region Struik, Cape Town Pages 34 - 35. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Justicia betonica:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Justicia betonica
Flora of Caprivi: Justicia betonica
Flora of Malawi: Justicia betonica
Flora of Zambia: Justicia betonica
Flora of Zimbabwe: Justicia betonica
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Justicia betonica

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Justicia betonica
African Plant Database: Justicia betonica
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Justicia betonica
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Justicia betonica
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Justicia betonica
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Justicia betonica
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Justicia betonica
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Justicia betonica
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Justicia betonica
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Justicia betonica
Ispot Southern Africa: Justicia betonica
JSTOR Plant Science: Justicia betonica
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Justicia betonica
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Justicia betonica
The Plant List (version 1.1): Justicia betonica
Tropicos: Justicia betonica


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-17

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2017). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Justicia betonica.
http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=154420, retrieved 13 December 2017

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