Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Gilliland

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Encephalartos manikensis

Photo: Stefaan Dondeyne
Mt Garuzo, Manica

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Synonyms: Encephalartos gratus Prain var. manikensis Gilliland
Common names: Gorongowe cycad (English) Manica cycad (English)
Frequency: Local
Status: Native
Cycad with a stem up to 1.5 m. Leaves narrowly ovate-lanceolate to oblong in outline, 100-190 cm, with c. 60 pairs of pinnae, lower pairs reduced to prickles. Largest pinnae 12-15 × 2-2.5 cm, lanceolate-ovate, ending in a forward directed spine and 1 or 2 spines on the upper and lower margins. Male cones 1-4 together, 25-60 cm tall on a peduncle of 5-15 cm. Scales slightly spaced when mature, subrectangular. Female cone c. 30-45 × 20-25 cm, loosely woolly. Seeds more or less ovoid, 2.5-3.5 cm.
Derivation of specific name: manikensis: named after the Manica districts of eastern Zimbabwe and western Mozambique where this species occurs
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Zimbabwe and Mozambique
Mozambique distribution: MS
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Lower Risk - near threatened
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Tuesday 24 July 2012

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 33. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 84. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 17.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 231.

Dyer, R.A. & Verdoorn, I.C. (1969). Encephalartos manikensis and its near allies Kirkia 7(1) Pages 150 - 151. (Includes a picture).

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 55.

Goode, D. (1989). Cycads of Africa Struik, Cape Town Pages 166 - 171. (Includes a picture).

Kimberley, M.J. (1979). Cycads in Zimbabwe Excelsa 9 Pages 12 - 13. (Includes a picture).

Lewis, J. (1960). Cycadaceae (including Zamiaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Page 82.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 12.

Other sources of information about Encephalartos manikensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Zimbabwe: Encephalartos manikensis
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Encephalartos manikensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Encephalartos manikensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Encephalartos manikensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Encephalartos manikensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Encephalartos manikensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Encephalartos manikensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Encephalartos manikensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Encephalartos manikensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Encephalartos manikensis
Plants of the World Online: Encephalartos manikensis
Tropicos: Encephalartos manikensis
Wikipedia: Encephalartos manikensis

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Encephalartos manikensis.
https://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102950, retrieved 6 December 2023

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