Habenaria clavata (Lindl.) Rchb. f.

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Habenaria clavata

Photo: Tomas Buruwate
Niassa Game Reserve.

Habenaria clavata

Photo: Tomas Buruwate
Niassa Game Reserve.

Habenaria clavata

Photo: Tomas Buruwate
Niassa Game Reserve.

Habenaria clavata

Photo: Tomas Buruwate
Niassa Game Reserve.

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Bonatea clavata Lindl.
Common names:
Status: Native
Terrestrial herb 20-80 cm tall with leaves along the stem. Leaves 8-13, lowermost sheath-like, middle ones suberect or spreading, ovate-lanceolate, 7-13 cm long, upper ones grading into bracts. Inflorescence 4-27 cm long, several to many flowered with bracts c. 3 cm long. Flowers pale green to yellowish-green, white in the centre. Dorsal sepal erect, 11-19 mm long; lateral sepals deflexed, 12-19 mm long, rolled lengthwise. Petals 2-lobed to the base; upper lobe filiform, 9-15 mm long, adnate to the dorsal sepal; upper lobe curving up and horn-like, 25-40 mm long. Lip 3-lobed with narrowly linear lobes; mid lobe 17-26 mm long, side lobes shorter, up to 21 mm long. Spur 3.5 cm long, parallel to ovary and pedicel, much swollen in the apical third. Stigmatic arms 8-13 mm long pointing forward.
Notes: The specimen in the photographs represents the first record for Mozambique.
Derivation of specific name: clavata: thickened at on end, club-shaped, which could refer either to the stigmatic arms or the spur.
Habitat: Brachystegia woodland, montane grassland and Mopane bushland.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.
Mozambique distribution: N
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Saturday 21 February 2015

Ball, J.S. (2009). Terrestrial African Orchids, A Selected Review. Pages 178 - 179. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 325.

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 29.

Fibeck, W. & Dare, M. (1993). Terrestrial Orchids in Zimbabwe. Excelsa 16 Page 63.

Grosvenor, R.K. (1976). A list of orchids indigenous in Rhodesia. Excelsa 6 Page 83.

La Croix, I. & Cribb, P.J. (1995). Orchidaceae (Part 1) Flora Zambesiaca 11(1) Pages 116 - 117.

La Croix, I. et al. (1991). Orchids of Malawi A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam Pages 81 - 82. (Includes a picture).

Linder, H.P. & Kurzweil, H. (1999). Orchids of Southern Africa A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, the Netherlands ISBN 90-5410-445-7 Page 124. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 96.

McMurtry, D., Grobler, L., Grobler, J. & Burns, S. (2008). Field Guide to the ORCHIDS of Northern South Africa and Swaziland Umdaus Press, PO Box 11059 Hatfield 0028 South Africa Pages 80 - 81. (Includes a picture).

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 121.

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 516 - 517. (Includes a picture).

Summerhayes, V.S. (1968). Orchidaceae (Part 1) Flora of Tropical East Africa Page 109.

Williamson, G. (1977). The Orchids of South Central Africa J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., London. Pages 59 - 60.

Other sources of information about Habenaria clavata:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Habenaria clavata
Flora of Malawi: Habenaria clavata
Flora of Zambia: Habenaria clavata
Flora of Zimbabwe: Habenaria clavata

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Habenaria clavata
African Plant Database: Habenaria clavata
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Habenaria clavata
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Habenaria clavata
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Habenaria clavata
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Habenaria clavata
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Habenaria clavata
JSTOR Plant Science: Habenaria clavata
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Habenaria clavata
Plants of the World Online: Habenaria clavata
Tropicos: Habenaria clavata
Wikipedia: Habenaria clavata

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Habenaria clavata.
https://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=116680, retrieved 20 June 2024

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