Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg

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Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Along path from Madzundzu to Zomba.

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Muwawa village along road to Dombe

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Muwawa village along road to Dombe

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Muwawa village along road to Dombe

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Muwawa village along road to Dombe

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Chlorophora alba A. Chev.
Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) Benth. & Hook. f.
Chlorophora tenuifolia Engl.
Milicia africana Sim
Morus excelsa Welw.
Common names: Iroko (English) N'ghunda (Sena)
Frequency: Locally frequent
Status: Native
Medium to large tree. Bark pale grey, rough and flaking in to squarish pieces. Leaves elliptic to oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins; base more or less cordate. Flowers unisexual on different trees. Male spikes much longer (8-20 cm) than the female (2-3 cm). Fruit fleshy, ellipsoid, mulberry-like, brown when ripe.
Derivation of specific name: excelsa: lofty, tall
Habitat: In moist forest.
Altitude range: Up to 1350 m
Flowering time:Aug - Oct
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa from Guinee-Bissau to Ethiopia and southwards to Angola and Zimbabwe
Mozambique distribution: N,Z,MS
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Cyrestis camillus sublineata (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Sunday 9 November 2014

Berg, C.C. (1991). Moraceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 16 - 18. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2003). Figs of Southern and South-Central Africa Umdaus Press, South Africa Pages 327 - 331. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 130.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 234. As Chlorophora excelsa

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 63.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 80.

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 393 - 395. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Zambia: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Milicia excelsa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Milicia excelsa
African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Milicia excelsa
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Milicia excelsa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Milicia excelsa
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Milicia excelsa
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Milicia excelsa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Milicia excelsa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Milicia excelsa
JSTOR Plant Science: Milicia excelsa
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Milicia excelsa
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Milicia excelsa
The Plant List (version 1.1): Milicia excelsa
Tropicos: Milicia excelsa

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-18

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2018). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Milicia excelsa., retrieved 18 March 2018

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