Ximenia caffra Sond.
var. caffra

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Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Lake Chivero, nr Bushman's Point

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Gardiner Farm, Arcturus

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Valley of Kings, Mutare

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Near Rhine Hotel, Old Runde Bridge, Mwenezi

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Near Rhine Hotel, Old Runde Bridge, Mwenezi

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Common names: Ntenguene (Sena) Ntenguere (Sena) Sourplum (English)
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree with spine-tipped branchlets. Leaves in fascicles on small lateral spurs, elliptic, leathery, densely hairy when young but becoming glabrous with age. Flowers clustered in the axils of the spines, creamy-white with a whitish "beard" in the throat. Fruit ellipsoid, orange to red when ripe. The fruit is edible but very sour.
Derivation of specific name: caffra: from Kaffraria, historic name for South Africa
Habitat: In various types of woodland and wooded grassland, often on rocky kopjes and termite mounds.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Sep - Oct
Worldwide distribution: From Central Africa to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Mozambique distribution: N,Z,T,MS,GI,M
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Cigaritis natalensis (Food plant)
Stugeta bowkeri tearei (Food plant)
Deudorix antalus (Food plant)
Axiocerses amanga amanga (Food plant)
Mylothris agathina agathina (Larval foodplant)
Hypolycaena philippus philippus (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 219. as Ximenia caffra (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 111. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 59.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 37.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 197. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 305 - 308. as Ximenia caffra (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, M. (1989). Guide to the trees and shrubs of the Mukuvisi Woodlands ?publisher. Page 9. as Ximenia caffra

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 74 - 75. (Includes a picture).

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 235.

Drummond, R.B. (1981). Common Trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare. Pages 30 - 31. (Includes a picture).

Garcia, J.G. (1963). Olacaceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(1) Pages 330 - 331. (Includes a picture).

Kamumvuri, G. (ed.) (2004). Plants of Zimbabwe Report No. 1 National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 12. as Ximenia caffra

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 36 - 37. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 65.

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 86. as Ximenia caffra (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 66 - 67. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 90.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 27.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 7.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 220.

Other sources of information about Ximenia caffra var. caffra:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Caprivi: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Malawi: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Zambia: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Zimbabwe: Ximenia caffra var. caffra

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Ximenia caffra
African Plant Database: Ximenia caffra
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Ximenia caffra
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ximenia caffra
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Ximenia caffra
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Ximenia caffra
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ximenia caffra
JSTOR Plant Science: Ximenia caffra
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Ximenia caffra
Plants of the World Online: Ximenia caffra
Tropicos: Ximenia caffra
Wikipedia: Ximenia caffra

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Ximenia caffra var. caffra.
https://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121590, retrieved 16 July 2024

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