Ceratophyllum demersum L.
var. demersum

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Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Photo: Helen Pickering
Off Bovu Island, Zambezi River

Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Photo: Mike Kennedy
Kasanka (FEOW: Bangweulu-Mweru)

Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Photo: Mike Kennedy
Kasanka (FEOW: Bangweulu-Mweru)

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Ceratophyllum oxyacanthum Cham.
Ceratophyllum tuberculatum Cham.
Common names: Coontail (English) Rigid hornwort (English)
Status: Native
Submerged aquatic herb. Stems up to 3m long and 2 mm in diameter, longitudinally grooved. Leaves in whorls of 7-11, 8-40 mm long, filiform, forked 1-2(3) times; margin with spine-tipped teeth, particularly in the apical segments. Flowers axillary, unisexual on the same plant; male flowers in many 1-3-flowered clusters per branch; female flowers solitary, few per branch. Fruit ovoid, ellipsoid to obovoid with an apical spine and 2 prominent basal spines, and raised dark spots on the surface.
Derivation of specific name: demersum: submerged, underwater
Habitat: Occurring in most types of permanent fresh water, even in brackish estuaries, often forming thick mats just below the surface.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Subcosmopolitan in temperate and tropical regions.
Mozambique distribution: N,MS,GI,M
Growth form(s): Aquatic.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Saturday 23 January 2010

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 46.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 203. As Ceratophyllum demersum

Wilmot-Dear, C.M. (1991). Ceratophyllaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 125 - 127. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Caprivi: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Malawi: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Zambia: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Zimbabwe: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Ceratophyllum demersum
African Plant Database: Ceratophyllum demersum
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Ceratophyllum demersum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Ceratophyllum demersum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ceratophyllum demersum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Ceratophyllum demersum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Ceratophyllum demersum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Ceratophyllum demersum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Ceratophyllum demersum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ceratophyllum demersum
JSTOR Plant Science: Ceratophyllum demersum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Ceratophyllum demersum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Ceratophyllum demersum
The Plant List (version 1.1): Ceratophyllum demersum
Tropicos: Ceratophyllum demersum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-19

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2019). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum.
https://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123480, retrieved 19 April 2019

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