Encephalartos ferox G. Bertol.
subsp. ferox

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Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Ann Bouckaert
Near Dunes de Dovela ecolodge, close to Dongane Lagoa. Just north of Zavora beach and 80 kms south of Inhambane.

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

Photo: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Encephalartos kosiensis Hutch.
Common names: Zululand cycad (English)
Frequency: Occasional
Status: Native
Description:
Cycad either stemless or with a short stem up to c. 1 m high and 25-30 cm in diameter. Leaves 100-200 cm long, dark green, very glossy; rhachis green, somewhat arching and lax, not spirally twisted; petiole straight, with 1-6 prickles; leaf-base collar absent; basal leaflets reducing to spines. Leaflets often overlapping downwards, ovate, up to 200 × 70 mm, markedly discolorous, mostly with 2-3 lobes; margins flat or incurved; with 1-3 teeth on each side. Male cones 1-10, fusiform, 40-50 cm long and 8-10 cm in diameter, bright orange-red. Female cones 1-5, ovoid, 25-50 cm long and 20-40 cm in diameter, orange-red. Seeds oblong, 45-50 mm long and 15-20 mm wide, bright red to black.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name: ferox: fierce, referring to the stiff and sharply spiny leaflets.
Habitat: In coastal forest and scrub often behind sand dunes.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Southern Mozambique and northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Mozambique distribution: GI,M
Growth form(s):
Endemic status: Near Endemic
Red data list status: Lower Risk - near threatened
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Thursday 24 September 2015
Literature:

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 38. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 17.

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 55.

Goode, D. (1989). Cycads of Africa Struik, Cape Town Pages 140 - 143. (Includes a picture).

Lewis, J. (1960). Cycadaceae (including Zamiaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Page 81.

Other sources of information about Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Encephalartos ferox
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Encephalartos ferox
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Encephalartos ferox
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Encephalartos ferox
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Encephalartos ferox
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Encephalartos ferox
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Encephalartos ferox
iNaturalist: Encephalartos ferox
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Encephalartos ferox
JSTOR Plant Science: Encephalartos ferox
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Encephalartos ferox
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Encephalartos ferox
Plants of the World Online: Encephalartos ferox
The Plant List (version 1.1): Encephalartos ferox
Tropicos: Encephalartos ferox
Wikipedia: Encephalartos ferox


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-20

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2020). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Encephalartos ferox subsp. ferox.
https://www.mozambiqueflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=173670, retrieved 6 June 2020

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