Solanum anguivi Lam.

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Solanum anguivi

Photo: David Gwynne-Evans
Lower slopes Mt Mabu

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Synonyms: Solanum carvalhoi Dammer
Solanum dichroanthum Dammer
Solanum indicum sensu auctt.
Common names: Forest bitterberry (English)
Status: Native
Erect woody herb or shrub, up to c. 4 m tall. Stems and leaves armed with straight or somewhat curved spines, yellowish to brownish, sometimes purple near the base, up to 13 mm long, branches often purple tinged. All parts covered in stellate hairs. Leaves rhombic-ovate, elliptic or lanceolate, thinly stellate hairy above, densely so below. The central ray of the stellate hairs often much longer than the lateral rays. Leaf margin subentire to triangularly lobed. Prickles usually present on the midrib and main veins. Flowers in up to 20-flowered racemose heads. Corolla pale mauve or purple to almost whitish, star-shaped. Fruits 6-12 mm in diameter, spherical, green, turning yellow and glossy orange-red when ripe. Edible when mature.
Derivation of specific name: anguivi: slender and curved, referring to the prickles
Habitat: In a wide variety of habitats, sometimes as a weed of disturbed or cultivated places.
Altitude range: Up to 2380 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa and South Africa as far as the KwaZulu-Natal. Also in the Arabian Peninsula, Aldabra, Comoro, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands.
Mozambique distribution: N,Z,T,MS
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Sunday 1 June 2008

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 272.

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 868. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 52.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 29.

Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Solanaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(4) Pages 93 - 97.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 79.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 74. As Solanum indicum

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 178.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 100.

Other sources of information about Solanum anguivi:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Solanum anguivi
Flora of Zambia: Solanum anguivi
Flora of Zimbabwe: Solanum anguivi

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Solanum anguivi
African Plant Database: Solanum anguivi
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Solanum anguivi
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Solanum anguivi
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Solanum anguivi
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Solanum anguivi
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Solanum anguivi
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Solanum anguivi
iNaturalist: Solanum anguivi
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Solanum anguivi
JSTOR Plant Science: Solanum anguivi
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Solanum anguivi
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Solanum anguivi
Plants of the World Online: Solanum anguivi
Tropicos: Solanum anguivi
Wikipedia: Solanum anguivi

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave 2007-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Mozambique: Species information: Solanum anguivi., retrieved 30 March 2023

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